Cold Mix Asphalt for Pothole Repairs

As infrastructure demands evolve, cold mix asphalt for pothole repairs emerges as a groundbreaking solution, redefining road maintenance and repair. This approach not only streamlines the process but also introduces an eco-friendly alternative to traditional methods. Its significance lies in its ability to adapt to various environmental conditions, offering a practical and efficient way to address one of the most common road issues – potholes.
Cold Mix Asphalt for Pothole Repairs

Cold Mix Asphalt for Pothole Repairs: A Revolutionary Approach

The future of road maintenance is being reshaped by the adoption of cold mix asphalt for pothole repairs. This technology is not just a mere alternative; it’s a forward-thinking solution that aligns with the global shift towards sustainable and responsible road construction and maintenance. It promises not only immediate benefits in terms of application and cost but also long-term environmental and economic advantages, paving the way for smarter, more sustainable infrastructure solutions.

Understanding Cold Mix Asphalt: A Comprehensive Guide

Cold mix asphalt (CMA) has emerged as a revolutionary material in the road construction and maintenance industry, offering a versatile and eco-friendly solution for pothole repairs and other surface issues. Unlike traditional hot mix asphalt that requires high temperatures for application, CMA is designed to be used at ambient temperatures, making it more energy-efficient and less reliant on weather conditions.

What is Cold Mix Asphalt?

Cold mix asphalt is a blend of aggregates and bitumen emulsions, which can be applied at lower temperatures compared to hot mix asphalt. This mixture maintains a workable consistency at room temperature and can be compacted without the need for heating.

Key Components and Their Roles

The primary components of CMA include:

  • Aggregates: These provide the structural strength and are typically a mix of different sizes for optimal compaction and stability.
  • Bitumen Emulsion: Acts as a binder to hold the aggregates together. It’s a mixture of bitumen, water, and emulsifying agents.

Benefits of Cold Mix Asphalt

  • Eco-Friendly: Lower production temperatures mean reduced energy consumption and emissions.
  • Cost-Effective: It requires less energy and can be applied without specialized equipment.
  • Flexible Application: Can be used in various weather conditions and is ideal for remote locations where hot mix plants are not feasible.
  • Long Shelf Life: Can be stored and used as needed, reducing waste.

Usage and Applications

  • Pothole Repairs: Ideal for quick and effective repairs, especially in colder climates.
  • Surface Patching: Useful for minor surface corrections and maintenance.
  • Utility Cuts: Often used to patch areas after utility repairs.

Comparison with Hot Mix Asphalt

While hot mix asphalt is preferred for structural layers of roadways due to its durability, CMA is more suitable for surface repairs and maintenance. It’s quicker to apply and sets faster, making it ideal for emergency repairs.

Future Outlook and Developments

The continued advancement in CMA formulations, including the use of modified bitumen and additives, is enhancing its performance and expanding its applications. It’s becoming a go-to solution for sustainable, cost-effective, and efficient road maintenance and repair.

This comprehensive overview of cold mix asphalt highlights its significance in modern road maintenance, offering a sustainable, cost-effective, and user-friendly alternative to traditional hot mix asphalt. As technology advances, CMA is poised to play an even more integral role in the future of road repairs and infrastructure maintenance.


The Science Behind Cold Mix Asphalt Technology

Cold mix asphalt (CMA) technology represents a significant advancement in the field of road construction and repair. This section delves into the scientific principles and innovations that underpin this technology, making it a preferred choice for certain applications, particularly pothole repairs.

Composition of Cold Mix Asphalt

At its core, CMA consists of two main components:

  1. Aggregates: These are the crushed stones or gravel that provide the structure and strength to the asphalt. The quality, size, and mixture of these aggregates play a crucial role in the overall performance of the asphalt.
  2. Bitumen Emulsion: Unlike the hot mix asphalt that uses hot bitumen, CMA uses a bitumen emulsion. This is bitumen dispersed in water with the help of emulsifying agents. When this emulsion is mixed with aggregates, it coats them evenly at lower temperatures.

The Role of Emulsifying Agents

Emulsifying agents are critical in CMA technology. They ensure that the bitumen, which is hydrophobic, is evenly distributed throughout the water, forming a stable emulsion. When the CMA is laid and compacted, the water starts to evaporate, and the emulsion breaks down, allowing the bitumen to bind the aggregates together.

Cold Mix Asphalt Curing Process

CMA undergoes a curing process that is fundamentally different from hot mix asphalt. The curing involves the gradual evaporation of water from the emulsion, leading to the coalescence of bitumen around the aggregate particles. This process can take from a few hours to several days, depending on the weather conditions and the composition of the mix.

Advantages of Polymer-Modified Emulsions

Recent advancements have introduced polymer-modified emulsions in CMA formulations. These polymers enhance the elasticity, adhesion, and durability of the asphalt, allowing for a more resilient and long-lasting repair, especially in areas with extreme weather conditions or heavy traffic.

Environmental Impact

The environmental aspect of CMA technology is one of its most significant advantages. Since it does not require high temperatures for application, it reduces energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This makes CMA a more sustainable option compared to traditional asphalt mixes.

Adaptability to Various Conditions

CMA’s unique composition makes it adaptable to a wide range of temperatures and weather conditions. This flexibility is particularly beneficial for emergency repairs and in regions where access to hot mix asphalt plants is limited.

Technological Innovations and Future Developments

Ongoing research and development in the field of cold mix asphalt technology focus on improving the mix design, enhancing the curing process, and expanding its applicability to more demanding scenarios.

The science behind cold mix asphalt technology is a blend of chemistry, material science, and environmental engineering. This sophisticated technology offers a sustainable, versatile, and effective solution for road maintenance, particularly for pothole repairs, making it an invaluable asset in modern infrastructure management.


Benefits of Using Cold Mix Asphalt for Pothole Repairs

Cold mix asphalt (CMA) has become increasingly popular for pothole repairs due to its numerous benefits. This section highlights the key advantages of using CMA, particularly in the context of repairing potholes, which are a common and recurring problem in road maintenance.

  1. Easy and Quick Application
  • No Heating Required: CMA can be applied at ambient temperatures, eliminating the need for heating equipment.
  • Immediate Use: Potholes can be filled immediately with CMA, making it ideal for urgent repairs.
  1. All-Weather Application
  • Weather-Resistant: CMA can be applied in various weather conditions, including cold and wet climates, where hot mix asphalt would not be feasible.
  • Year-Round Availability: Its ability to be applied in colder temperatures extends the road repair season.
  1. Enhanced Safety
  • Reduced Worksite Risks: The absence of hot materials and heavy equipment reduces the risk of accidents and injuries at the worksite.
  • Minimal Traffic Disruption: Quick application and setting time minimize traffic disruptions.
  1. Cost-Effective
  • Lower Production Costs: CMA requires less energy to produce compared to hot mix asphalt.
  • Reduced Transportation Costs: Being usable at ambient temperatures, CMA doesn’t require specialized heated trucks for transport.
  1. Eco-Friendly
  • Lower Carbon Footprint: The production and application of CMA generate lower greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Energy Efficient: The process saves energy by eliminating the need for heating.
  1. Durability and Flexibility
  • Adaptable to Pavement Movements: CMA remains more flexible at lower temperatures, reducing the likelihood of cracking.
  • Long-Lasting Repairs: Properly applied CMA can offer durability comparable to hot mix asphalt.
  1. Easy Storage and Handling
  • Long Shelf Life: CMA can be stored for extended periods without losing its effectiveness.
  • On-Demand Usage: It can be stockpiled and used as needed, reducing waste.
  1. Versatile Applications
  • Not Just for Potholes: CMA is also suitable for minor repairs, maintenance work, and temporary patches.

The benefits of using cold mix asphalt for pothole repairs are clear and numerous. From its ease of application and environmental friendliness to its cost-effectiveness and all-weather utility, CMA stands out as an efficient solution for addressing one of the most persistent challenges in road maintenance.


Cold Mix Asphalt Vs. Hot Mix Asphalt: A Comparative Analysis

The choice between cold mix asphalt (CMA) and hot mix asphalt (HMA) is pivotal in road construction and maintenance. This comparative analysis aims to highlight the key differences, advantages, and limitations of each, providing a clearer understanding of their respective roles in road repair and construction.

  1. Production and Application Temperature
  • CMA: Produced and applied at ambient temperatures, reducing energy requirements.
  • HMA: Requires heating up to 150°C – 190°C for production and application, consuming more energy.
  1. Environmental Impact
  • CMA: Lower greenhouse gas emissions due to reduced energy usage.
  • HMA: Higher emissions due to the high energy required for heating.
  1. Application Conditions and Flexibility
  • CMA: Can be applied in various weather conditions, including cold and wet climates.
  • HMA: Best applied in dry and warmer conditions; less effective in cold weather.
  1. Setting and Curing Time
  • CMA: Sets and cures over time as the water in the emulsion evaporates.
  • HMA: Sets quickly upon cooling, allowing for faster return of traffic.
  1. Durability and Longevity
  • CMA: Typically used for surface repairs; may not be as durable as HMA in high-traffic areas.
  • HMA: Generally offers greater durability and is preferred for structural layers of pavements.
  1. Cost Considerations
  • CMA: Lower production costs, reduced transport costs, and less specialized equipment needed.
  • HMA: Higher production and transportation costs due to heating requirements.
  1. Storage and Shelf Life
  • CMA: Can be stored for longer periods and remains usable.
  • HMA: Requires immediate use after production; cannot be stored.
  1. Safety and Worksite Considerations
  • CMA: Safer to handle due to lower temperatures, reducing worksite risks.
  • HMA: Higher risk of burns and injuries due to the hot materials used.
  1. Suitability for Different Repairs
  • CMA: Ideal for pothole repairs, minor patching, and low-traffic areas.
  • HMA: Preferred for new road constructions, heavy-traffic areas, and structural layers.
  1. Adaptability to Environmental Constraints
  • CMA: More adaptable to environmental and climatic constraints.
  • HMA: Limited by temperature and weather conditions for effective application.

In conclusion, while hot mix asphalt is the conventional choice for major road construction due to its durability and strength, cold mix asphalt offers significant advantages for pothole repairs and maintenance, particularly in terms of flexibility, environmental impact, and cost. The selection between CMA and HMA depends largely on the specific requirements of the project, including the traffic volume, climatic conditions, and environmental considerations.


Step-by-Step Guide to Applying Cold Mix Asphalt

Applying cold mix asphalt (CMA) for pothole repairs and minor road maintenance is a straightforward process. This guide provides a step-by-step approach to ensure effective and durable repairs using CMA.

Preparation of the Area

  1. Cleaning the Pothole: Remove any loose debris, water, and dust from the pothole to ensure a clean surface.
  2. Inspecting the Pothole: Check for any underlying issues that may need addressing before applying CMA.

Application of Cold Mix Asphalt

  1. Filling the Pothole: Start by filling the pothole with CMA. Overfill it slightly to compensate for compaction.
  2. Layering: If the pothole is deep, fill it in layers, compacting each layer before adding the next.


  1. Initial Compaction: Compact the CMA using a hand tamper or a vibratory plate compactor for larger areas.
  2. Ensuring Proper Compaction: Adequate compaction is key to the longevity of the repair. Ensure the CMA is compacted until it is level with the surrounding surface.

Finalizing the Repair

  1. Sealing the Edges: To prevent water ingress and ensure better adhesion, seal the edges of the repaired area with a bitumen-based sealant.
  2. Checking for Evenness: Ensure the surface is even and smooth with no high or low spots.


  1. Immediate Traffic: One of the advantages of CMA is that it can handle traffic almost immediately after application.
  2. Monitoring the Repair: Keep an eye on the repair, especially during the first few days, to ensure it remains intact and effective.

Tips for Best Results

  • Use Quality CMA: Ensure the CMA used is of good quality and appropriate for the specific application.
  • Proper Storage of CMA: Store CMA in a dry, covered area to maintain its effectiveness.
  • Weather Considerations: While CMA can be applied in various weather conditions, avoid application during extreme weather for best results.

This step-by-step guide to applying cold mix asphalt provides a framework for effective and durable road repairs. Following these steps will help ensure that the repairs last longer and the road remains safe for its users.


Durability and Performance: Long-Term Benefits of Cold Mix Asphalt

Cold mix asphalt (CMA) is not just a quick fix for potholes and minor road repairs; it also offers significant long-term benefits in terms of durability and performance. This section explores these benefits, underlining why CMA is a valuable asset in road maintenance strategies.

Enhanced Durability in Varied Climates

  • Climate Resilience: CMA maintains its integrity in a range of climatic conditions, from cold winters to hot summers, making it suitable for diverse geographic locations.
  • Resistance to Water Damage: When properly applied, CMA demonstrates good resistance to water infiltration, which is crucial for preventing pothole recurrence.

Flexible and Adaptable Material

  • Reduced Cracking and Rutting: The inherent flexibility of CMA allows it to adapt to underlying surface movements, reducing the likelihood of cracking and rutting, common issues with traditional hot mix asphalt.
  • Adaptability to Ground Movements: Particularly in areas with frequent freeze-thaw cycles, CMA’s flexibility helps it to withstand the stress of ground movements better.

Longevity and Low Maintenance

  • Extended Lifespan: When applied correctly, CMA repairs can last for several years, reducing the need for frequent reapplications.
  • Minimal Maintenance Requirements: The durability of CMA translates to lower maintenance costs over time.

Eco-friendly and Sustainable

  • Long-term Environmental Benefits: The low energy requirement for producing and applying CMA contributes to its sustainability profile, offering long-term environmental benefits.
  • Contribution to Sustainable Practices: The use of CMA aligns with the growing need for sustainable and eco-friendly materials in construction and maintenance.

Cost-Effectiveness Over Time

  • Reduced Long-term Costs: The longevity and reduced maintenance needs of CMA make it a cost-effective solution over time.
  • Savings on Energy and Resources: The energy-efficient production and application process of CMA leads to significant savings in terms of resources and costs.

Versatility in Applications

  • Suitability for Various Repair Works: CMA’s versatility makes it suitable for a wide range of repair works, beyond just pothole filling.
  • Use in Remote or Inaccessible Areas: Its ease of transportation and application makes CMA ideal for use in remote or hard-to-reach areas.

In conclusion, the long-term benefits of cold mix asphalt in terms of durability, performance, environmental sustainability, and cost-effectiveness make it an increasingly popular choice for road maintenance and repair. Its adaptability to various conditions and minimal maintenance requirements further enhance its appeal as a reliable road repair material.


Eco-Friendly Aspects of Cold Mix Asphalt

Cold mix asphalt (CMA) is not only a practical solution for road repairs but also a more environmentally friendly option compared to traditional hot mix asphalt. This section focuses on the eco-friendly aspects of CMA, highlighting its benefits in sustainable road construction and maintenance.

Reduced Energy Consumption

  • Lower Production Temperatures: CMA is produced at ambient temperatures, significantly reducing the energy required for heating, as compared to hot mix asphalt.
  • Energy Efficiency: The overall energy efficiency of CMA production and application translates to lower carbon emissions and a smaller environmental footprint.

Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

  • Reduced Emissions During Production: The absence of high-temperature processing in CMA production leads to considerably lower greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Sustainable Construction Practices: The use of CMA supports the construction industry’s shift towards more sustainable practices.

Use of Recycled Materials

  • Recyclability: CMA can incorporate recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), further enhancing its environmental benefits by reducing waste and conserving resources.
  • Promoting a Circular Economy: The use of recycled materials in CMA aligns with the principles of a circular economy, where materials are reused and recycled, minimizing waste.

Minimal Impact on Air Quality

  • Lower Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions: The production and application of CMA typically involve lower VOC emissions compared to hot mix asphalt, contributing to better air quality.
  • Health and Environmental Safety: Reduced VOC emissions make CMA a safer choice for workers and the environment.

Water-Based Emulsions

  • Eco-Friendly Binders: The bitumen emulsions used in CMA are water-based, which are generally more eco-friendly compared to the solvents used in some hot mix asphalt applications.
  • Reduced Risk of Pollution: The water-based nature of CMA reduces the risk of soil and water contamination.

Compatibility with Green Infrastructure

  • Supporting Green Roadways: CMA is compatible with green infrastructure initiatives, such as permeable pavements and urban heat island mitigation strategies.
  • Enhancing Biodiversity and Ecosystems: Its lower environmental impact contributes to the preservation of local biodiversity and ecosystems.

In summary, cold mix asphalt stands out as an eco-friendly option in the field of road construction and maintenance. Its lower energy requirements, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, use of recycled materials, and minimal impact on air quality highlight its role in promoting sustainable and environmentally responsible practices. As the focus on sustainability grows in the construction industry, CMA’s eco-friendly aspects make it an increasingly attractive choice for various applications.


Case Studies: Successful Cold Mix Asphalt Applications

Exploring real-world examples of cold mix asphalt (CMA) applications provides valuable insights into its effectiveness and versatility. This section presents case studies where CMA has been successfully used, demonstrating its practical benefits in various scenarios.

  1. Emergency Pothole Repairs in Urban Areas
  • Location: A major city with heavy traffic.
  • Challenge: Frequent potholes causing traffic disruptions and safety concerns.
  • Solution: Use of CMA for quick, effective repairs, even in cold and wet conditions.
  • Outcome: Reduced traffic disruptions, enhanced road safety, and positive feedback from the community.
  1. Road Maintenance in Rural and Remote Locations
  • Location: Rural areas with limited access to hot mix plants.
  • Challenge: Need for a practical solution for road repairs that could be transported easily and applied in remote locations.
  • Solution: Utilization of CMA, which could be stored and used as needed without specialized equipment.
  • Outcome: Improved road conditions, cost savings on transportation and application, and increased accessibility for rural communities.
  1. Eco-Friendly Road Solutions in Environmentally Sensitive Areas
  • Location: Protected natural areas.
  • Challenge: Road repairs needed with minimal environmental impact.
  • Solution: Application of CMA due to its eco-friendly properties, including lower emissions and the use of recycled materials.
  • Outcome: Effective road repairs with reduced environmental footprint, supporting conservation efforts.
  1. Large-Scale Infrastructure Projects
  • Location: Major highway construction project.
  • Challenge: Requirement for a temporary, durable road surface during ongoing construction.
  • Solution: Use of CMA for temporary surfacing, providing a safe, usable road during construction phases.
  • Outcome: Seamless progression of the construction project without compromising road usability and safety.
  1. Cold Weather Road Repairs
  • Location: Regions with harsh winter conditions.
  • Challenge: Performing road repairs during cold weather when hot mix asphalt is not feasible.
  • Solution: Implementation of CMA, which is effective even in low temperatures.
  • Outcome: Year-round road maintenance capability, ensuring road safety and continuity of service.
  1. Cost-Effective Solutions for Municipal Budget Constraints
  • Location: A small town with limited road maintenance budgets.
  • Challenge: Finding an affordable solution for road repairs without compromising quality.
  • Solution: Adoption of CMA for its cost-effectiveness and ease of application.
  • Outcome: Extended road life, reduced maintenance costs, and efficient use of municipal resources.

These case studies showcase the diverse applications and advantages of cold mix asphalt, from emergency repairs in urban settings to sustainable solutions in environmentally sensitive areas. Each case highlights how CMA offers a reliable, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly option for road maintenance and construction, underscoring its growing role in modern infrastructure management.


Cost Analysis: Economic Advantages of Cold Mix Asphalt

Understanding the economic advantages of cold mix asphalt (CMA) is crucial for decision-makers in the road construction and maintenance industry. This section provides a cost analysis, highlighting the financial benefits of using CMA in various applications.

Reduced Production Costs

  • Lower Energy Requirements: The production of CMA does not require the high temperatures necessary for hot mix asphalt, resulting in significant energy savings.
  • Simpler Manufacturing Process: CMA’s production process is less complex, potentially reducing the investment and operational costs of asphalt plants.

Transportation and Storage Savings

  • No Need for Heated Transport: CMA can be transported at ambient temperatures, eliminating the need for specialized heated trucks required for hot mix asphalt.
  • Longer Shelf Life: CMA can be stored for extended periods without degradation, reducing the pressure of immediate use and allowing for bulk purchasing and storage.

Application and Labor Costs

  • Easier Application: CMA’s application does not require specialized equipment or highly skilled labor, leading to lower labor costs and reduced training requirements.
  • Flexibility in Application: The ability to apply CMA in varied weather conditions and temperatures can lead to fewer project delays and associated costs.

Maintenance and Durability

  • Long-term Savings: While the initial cost for CMA might be higher than some traditional materials, its durability can lead to fewer repairs and lower long-term maintenance costs.
  • Less Frequent Repairs: The flexibility and resistance to water damage of CMA can result in a longer lifespan for repairs, translating to cost savings over time.

Environmental Cost Benefits

  • Reduced Environmental Impact: The lower carbon footprint and reduced energy consumption of CMA production and application contribute to environmental cost savings, particularly in the context of carbon taxes and environmental compliance costs.
  • Support for Green Initiatives: Using CMA aligns with sustainable construction practices, which can lead to eligibility for grants and funding aimed at reducing environmental impact.

Comparison with Hot Mix Asphalt

  • Overall Cost-Effectiveness: When considering the full lifecycle costs, including production, transportation, application, and maintenance, CMA often proves to be more cost-effective compared to hot mix asphalt, especially for specific applications like pothole repairs and low-traffic areas.

In summary, the economic advantages of cold mix asphalt are multifaceted, encompassing direct cost savings in production and application, as well as indirect benefits in terms of environmental impact and long-term maintenance. These factors make CMA an economically viable option for a wide range of road maintenance and repair projects.


Future of Road Repairs: The Role of Cold Mix Asphalt

As we look towards the future of road repairs and infrastructure maintenance, cold mix asphalt (CMA) is poised to play a significant role. Its unique properties and evolving technologies suggest a growing importance in the industry. This section explores the potential future developments and the expanding role of CMA in road repairs.

Advancements in Cold Mix Asphalt Technology

  • Innovative Formulations: Ongoing research is leading to more advanced CMA formulations, including polymer-modified and fiber-reinforced mixes, offering enhanced durability and performance.
  • Eco-Friendly Developments: Efforts to make CMA even more sustainable, such as incorporating more recycled materials and reducing the carbon footprint, are likely to continue.

Increasing Demand for Sustainable Solutions

  • Environmental Considerations: With a global shift towards sustainability, the demand for eco-friendly road repair solutions like CMA is expected to rise.
  • Regulatory Incentives: Governments and regulatory bodies are likely to offer incentives for using environmentally friendly materials, further boosting the use of CMA.

Role in Smart City Infrastructure

  • Integration with Smart City Concepts: As cities become smarter and more connected, the need for quick and efficient road repair solutions that minimize disruption will increase, making CMA a preferred choice.
  • Adaptability to Urban Needs: CMA’s ease of application and effectiveness in diverse conditions make it suitable for the fast-paced, varied needs of urban infrastructure maintenance.

Responding to Climate Change

  • Resilience in Extreme Weather: The effects of climate change, including more frequent extreme weather events, will require road repair materials that are versatile and resilient, a niche where CMA fits well.
  • Year-Round Application: CMA’s ability to be applied in colder temperatures will be crucial in regions experiencing longer and more severe winters.

Large-Scale and Emergency Repairs

  • Rapid Deployment: CMA’s quick application and setting properties make it ideal for large-scale and emergency repairs, such as in the aftermath of natural disasters.
  • Versatility in Applications: Its ability to be used for a wide range of repair types, from small potholes to larger surface issues, enhances its utility in large-scale repair projects.

Education and Awareness

  • Increased Knowledge Sharing: As the benefits of CMA become more widely recognized, there will likely be more educational efforts to promote its use among industry professionals.
  • Collaboration and Research: Partnerships between industry, academia, and government could lead to further advancements and wider adoption of CMA technologies.

In conclusion, the future of road repairs will be significantly influenced by the role of cold mix asphalt. Its adaptability, environmental benefits, and potential for technological advancements position CMA as a key material in addressing the evolving challenges and needs of road maintenance and infrastructure development. As the focus on sustainability and efficiency grows, CMA is likely to become an increasingly integral part of the road repair landscape.

In the realm of road repair and maintenance, cold mix asphalt for pothole repairs stands out as a transformative solution. Its ease of application, environmental friendliness, and cost-effectiveness are matched by its adaptability to different weather conditions and geographical locations. These attributes, combined with its longevity and reduced carbon footprint, make cold mix asphalt for pothole repairs a key player in the future of sustainable infrastructure maintenance, offering a versatile and reliable alternative to traditional methods.


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Bitumen and Asphalt

Prepared by the PetroNaft Co. research team.


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