What is the function of PE wax?

The function of PE wax extends beyond simple applications to play a crucial role in modern industrial practices. Its unique chemical composition and properties make it an invaluable component in enhancing the quality, efficiency, and sustainability of various products. From providing superior lubrication in plastics manufacturing to improving the aesthetic and protective qualities of coatings, the function of PE wax is integral to achieving high-performance standards in numerous sectors. This introduction sets the stage for a detailed exploration of PE wax’s multifaceted roles and its impact on industry advancements.
function of pe wax

The Multidimensional Function of PE Wax Across Applications

The function of PE wax is multidimensional, influencing not only the physical and chemical properties of products but also their environmental footprint. As industries seek more sustainable and efficient materials, the function of PE wax becomes increasingly significant. It offers solutions for enhancing product durability, resistance to wear, and processing capabilities, all while adhering to environmental standards. This section will unveil the broad spectrum of PE wax applications, highlighting its critical role in pushing the boundaries of innovation and sustainability in material science.


Introduction to PE Wax: Understanding Its Core Functions and Applications

Polyethylene wax, commonly referred to as PE Wax, is a unique type of synthetic wax known for its versatile properties and applications in various industries. This introductory section aims to demystify PE Wax, highlighting its fundamental characteristics, composition, and the broad spectrum of its practical applications.

Composition and Properties PE Wax is derived from the polymerization of ethylene, a process that yields a high-molecular-weight product. Its distinct chemical structure imparts notable characteristics such as high melting points, excellent chemical resistance, and minimal solubility in organic solvents. These properties make PE Wax a preferred choice in applications demanding durability and stability.

Versatility in Applications One of the reasons for PE Wax’s widespread popularity is its versatility. It is extensively used in industries such as coatings and printing inks, adhesives, plastics, and rubber manufacturing. In the coatings industry, for instance, PE Wax is valued for its ability to enhance gloss, improve scratch resistance, and offer better slip properties.

Industrial and Consumer Products In consumer products, PE Wax finds its way into cosmetics, where it’s prized for its texture-enhancing capabilities, and in food packaging, where its chemical inertness makes it safe for use. In industrial settings, its role in plastic processing, particularly in the modification of rheological properties of plastics, is crucial.

Environmental Considerations In the context of environmental sustainability, PE Wax is noteworthy for its non-toxic nature and compatibility with various recycling processes. This aspect is increasingly relevant as industries and consumers alike seek greener alternatives in materials and manufacturing processes.

In conclusion, PE Wax stands out as a multifunctional material whose applications span a wide range of industries. Its combination of chemical stability, versatility, and environmental safety positions it as a valuable component in both industrial and consumer products. As we delve deeper into the specifics of PE Wax in the following sections, its role as a key player in the world of synthetic waxes becomes increasingly apparent.


Chemical Composition of PE Wax: What Makes It Unique?

Polyethylene wax, or PE Wax, possesses a unique chemical composition that sets it apart from other synthetic and natural waxes. Understanding the molecular structure and chemical properties of PE Wax not only sheds light on why it’s so versatile but also explains its compatibility with a vast array of applications.

Molecular Structure PE Wax is synthesized through the polymerization of ethylene, a simple hydrocarbon molecule. This process results in a wax that is essentially a linear or branched polymer of ethylene. The length of the polymer chain and the degree of branching determine the specific properties of the PE Wax, such as its melting point, hardness, and solubility. High-density PE Wax, characterized by its linear structure, typically exhibits higher melting points and hardness, while low-density, branched PE Wax is more pliable and has lower melting points.

Key Chemical Properties

  • High Melting Point: PE Wax has a melting point range that can vary significantly depending on its molecular weight and structure, typically between 100°C to 120°C. This high melting point makes it ideal for applications requiring thermal resistance.
  • Low Viscosity: Even at high melting points, PE Wax maintains a low viscosity, making it an excellent lubricant for processing plastics and enhancing the flow of materials.
  • Chemical Resistance: It is resistant to chemicals, including acids, bases, and solvents, which makes it suitable for use in harsh chemical environments.
  • Low Solubility: PE Wax is minimally soluble in organic solvents at room temperature, contributing to its effectiveness as a protective coating in various applications.

Uniqueness of PE Wax The uniqueness of PE Wax lies in its balance of physical and chemical properties. Its ability to act as both a lubricant and a hardening agent, coupled with its chemical inertness, makes it a multifunctional material suitable for a wide range of applications. For instance, in the plastics industry, it is used to enhance the processability of polymers and to modify their physical properties. In the coatings industry, its contribution to improving the durability and appearance of finishes is unparalleled.

Furthermore, the environmental profile of PE Wax, being non-toxic and compatible with recycling processes, enhances its appeal in sectors prioritizing sustainability. This combination of unique properties makes PE Wax an indispensable material in industries ranging from pharmaceuticals to automotive manufacturing.

In conclusion, the chemical composition of PE Wax is the cornerstone of its wide-ranging applications and benefits. Its molecular structure endows it with a set of properties that can be finely tuned to meet the requirements of various industrial processes and products. This versatility is what makes PE Wax a unique and invaluable component across multiple sectors.


The Role of PE Wax in Enhancing Product Performance

Polyethylene wax (PE Wax) plays a pivotal role in enhancing the performance and quality of a wide range of products across various industries. Its unique properties contribute significantly to improving the physical characteristics, durability, and functionality of products. This section explores the multifaceted ways in which PE Wax augments product performance.

Improvement in Processability and Manufacturing Efficiency

  • Lubrication: In plastics manufacturing, PE Wax acts as an internal and external lubricant, facilitating smoother processing and reducing friction. This leads to more efficient molding and extrusion processes, contributing to a higher quality finish and faster production rates.
  • Dispersant: PE Wax serves as an effective dispersant for fillers and pigments in composites and coatings. It ensures uniform distribution, enhancing the aesthetic appeal and consistency of products.

Enhancement of Physical Properties

  • Hardness and Scratch Resistance: In coatings and inks, PE Wax adds to the hardness of the surface, making it more resistant to scratches and abrasion. This is crucial for maintaining the visual and functional integrity of coated surfaces over time.
  • Gloss and Surface Finish: By adjusting the surface properties, PE Wax can either increase the gloss for a shinier finish or provide a matte effect, depending on the desired aesthetic. This versatility allows manufacturers to tailor the appearance of products to meet specific consumer preferences.

Improvement in Stability and Durability

  • Thermal Stability: The high melting point of PE Wax imparts enhanced thermal stability to products, making them more resistant to deformation or degradation under high temperatures. This is particularly beneficial in applications such as hot melt adhesives and plastics.
  • Chemical Resistance: Its inherent chemical resistance makes products less susceptible to damage or deterioration from acids, alkalis, and certain solvents. This property extends the lifespan of products exposed to harsh chemical environments.

Environmental and Safety Enhancements

  • Non-toxicity: Given its non-toxic nature, PE Wax is safe for use in applications that come into direct contact with humans, such as cosmetics and food packaging. This safety profile supports the development of products that comply with stringent health and safety standards.
  • Recyclability: The compatibility of PE Wax with recycling processes ensures that products containing it can be recycled more efficiently, contributing to the sustainability goals of manufacturers and reducing the environmental footprint of products.

In conclusion, PE Wax is a critical additive that enhances product performance in numerous ways. From improving processability and physical properties to ensuring stability, durability, and safety, its contributions are integral to the development of high-quality, durable, and environmentally friendly products. The ability of PE Wax to meet diverse industrial needs while adhering to sustainability and safety standards underscores its invaluable role in modern manufacturing and product design.


Comparative Analysis: PE Wax vs. Other Waxes in Industrial Applications

In the realm of industrial applications, waxes play a pivotal role in modifying the properties of products and improving their performance. Polyethylene wax (PE Wax) and other types of waxes, such as paraffin, beeswax, carnauba, and montan, are widely used across various industries. This comparative analysis aims to shed light on how PE Wax stands out from other waxes in terms of its chemical properties, applications, and performance enhancements.

PE Wax vs. Paraffin Wax

  • Melting Point: PE Wax typically has a higher melting point than paraffin wax, making it more suitable for applications requiring thermal stability.
  • Chemical Resistance: PE Wax offers superior chemical resistance compared to paraffin wax, rendering it more effective in harsh environments.
  • Lubrication: While both waxes serve as lubricants, PE Wax’s lower viscosity at high temperatures provides better lubrication properties in plastic processing and extrusion.

PE Wax vs. Beeswax

  • Consistency and Durability: PE Wax provides a more consistent and durable finish to products, whereas beeswax, being natural, can vary in quality and has a softer texture.
  • Sustainability: Beeswax is a renewable resource, appealing to eco-conscious industries. However, PE Wax’s compatibility with recycling processes also supports sustainability goals.

PE Wax vs. Carnauba Wax

  • Hardness: Carnauba wax is one of the hardest natural waxes, offering excellent scratch resistance. PE Wax, while not as hard, provides a balance of hardness and flexibility, making it versatile across more applications.
  • Temperature Resistance: PE Wax outperforms carnauba wax in thermal resistance, maintaining its properties over a wider temperature range.

PE Wax vs. Montan Wax

  • Source and Availability: Montan wax, derived from lignite, is less commonly used and more specialized than PE Wax. The synthetic nature of PE Wax ensures consistent availability and performance.
  • Application Flexibility: PE Wax’s versatility across a broader range of applications, from coatings to plastics, gives it an edge over montan wax, which is often used in specific niches like high-performance car waxes and polishes.

Unique Advantages of PE Wax

  • Versatility: PE Wax’s broad compatibility with various materials and processes makes it a go-to choice in industries ranging from coatings and inks to plastics and rubber.
  • Performance Enhancement: It uniquely balances lubrication, gloss enhancement, scratch resistance, and stability, contributing significantly to the improved performance of end products.
  • Environmental Profile: The non-toxic and recyclable nature of PE Wax aligns with modern environmental and safety standards, making it preferable for applications in consumer goods, including cosmetics and food packaging.

In conclusion, while each wax type has its niche and advantages, PE Wax distinguishes itself through its high melting point, chemical resistance, versatility in applications, and contribution to product performance enhancements. Its role in modern industrial applications is underscored by its ability to meet diverse needs while adhering to sustainability and safety standards, positioning it as a highly valuable material in the manufacturing sector.


Innovative Uses of PE Wax in New Industries

Polyethylene wax (PE Wax) is not only a staple in traditional industries like coatings, plastics, and adhesives but also making significant inroads into new and innovative sectors. These advancements demonstrate the adaptability and potential of PE Wax to revolutionize product formulations and manufacturing processes. This exploration into its innovative uses sheds light on the expanding horizon of PE Wax applications.

3D Printing Materials

  • Filament Production: PE Wax is being utilized in the manufacturing of 3D printing filaments, offering improved printability and layer adhesion. Its thermal properties help in controlling the cooling and solidification process, enhancing the quality of 3D printed objects.

Renewable Energy Sector

  • Battery Manufacturing: In the production of lithium-ion batteries, PE Wax is used as a binder in the electrode manufacturing process. Its chemical stability and compatibility with other battery materials contribute to the efficiency and longevity of batteries, a key factor in the renewable energy sector.

Biodegradable Packaging

  • Eco-friendly Coatings: The push towards sustainability has led to the use of PE Wax in creating biodegradable packaging solutions. By applying PE Wax as a coating, packaging materials gain water resistance and durability, while maintaining environmental compliance.

Agricultural Innovations

  • Controlled Release Fertilizers: PE Wax coatings on fertilizers control the release of nutrients, minimizing waste and improving efficiency in crop production. This targeted nutrient delivery system supports sustainable agriculture practices by reducing runoff and environmental impact.

Cosmetics and Personal Care

  • Advanced Formulations: Beyond traditional uses in cosmetics for texture enhancement, PE Wax is being incorporated into advanced skincare and beauty products for its moisture-retaining properties and ability to form protective barriers on the skin, contributing to long-lasting hydration and protection.

Automotive Industry

  • Protective Coatings: In automotive manufacturing, PE Wax is used in protective coatings to enhance the durability and appearance of vehicle finishes. Its application extends to underbody coatings and rust preventatives, offering superior protection against environmental damage.

Electronics Manufacturing

  • Component Protection: The electronics industry benefits from the use of PE Wax in protective coatings for components. It serves as an insulator and protector against moisture and dust, ensuring the longevity and reliability of electronic devices.

Textile Treatments

  • Fabric Coatings: PE Wax is applied in textile manufacturing to impart water-repellent properties and enhance fabric durability. This application is particularly beneficial in outdoor and performance wear, where durability and weather resistance are paramount.

In conclusion, the innovative uses of PE Wax across new industries highlight its versatility and potential for contributing to advancements in technology and sustainability. By enhancing product performance, supporting eco-friendly initiatives, and improving manufacturing processes, PE Wax is poised to play a crucial role in the future of material science and industry innovation.


Technical Specifications and Grades of PE Wax: A Detailed Overview

Polyethylene wax (PE Wax) is available in various grades, each tailored to meet specific industry requirements and application needs. Understanding the technical specifications and differences between these grades is crucial for selecting the right PE Wax for a particular use. This section provides a comprehensive overview of the technical aspects and classifications of PE Wax, highlighting its versatility and adaptability across diverse sectors.

Molecular Weight Distribution

  • Low Molecular Weight PE Wax: Characterized by a molecular weight ranging from 500 to 1000 g/mol. This grade offers excellent solubility and is primarily used as a slip agent and lubricant in plastics and rubber processing.
  • High Molecular Weight PE Wax: With a molecular weight exceeding 1000 g/mol, this grade exhibits higher melting points and hardness. It is suitable for applications requiring superior thermal stability and is often used in high-performance coatings and adhesives.

Degree of Polymerization and Branching

  • Linear PE Wax: Possesses a linear molecular structure, resulting in higher melting points and hardness. Ideal for applications demanding high resistance to heat and chemicals.
  • Branched PE Wax: Features a branched molecular structure, providing lower melting points and increased flexibility. This grade is preferred for applications where a softer wax is beneficial, such as in certain types of polishes and inks.

Physical Form

  • Powdered PE Wax: Offers ease of dispersion and is commonly used in powdered form for applications in inks, coatings, and masterbatches for plastics.
  • Granulated PE Wax: Provides convenient handling and dosing in manufacturing processes, suitable for compounding and blending in plastics and rubber.
  • Emulsified PE Wax: Available as a water-based emulsion, used for surface treatments and as a sizing agent in paper and textile manufacturing.

Melting Point

  • The melting point of PE Wax varies between 100°C to 120°C, depending on the grade and molecular structure. This property is critical for applications where thermal processing is involved, ensuring the wax performs effectively under the required temperature conditions.


  • Viscosity is another key specification, affecting the flow and application properties of PE Wax. Lower viscosity grades are ideal for lubrication and as release agents, while higher viscosity grades are used for adding body and structure to products.

Applications by Grade

  • Low Molecular Weight, Linear PE Wax: Used in high-performance coatings, providing gloss, scratch resistance, and slip.
  • High Molecular Weight, Branched PE Wax: Applied in plastics for improving processability, reducing viscosity, and acting as a dispersing agent for pigments and fillers.
  • Emulsified PE Wax: Utilized in water-based formulations for coatings and inks, offering improved wear resistance and surface properties.

Compliance and Certifications

  • Depending on the application, certain grades of PE Wax must comply with specific regulatory standards, such as FDA approval for food contact applications or REACH compliance in Europe. Manufacturers typically provide detailed documentation on the compliance status of their products.

In conclusion, the technical specifications and grades of PE Wax are designed to cater to a broad spectrum of industrial applications, from enhancing the performance of plastics and coatings to improving the quality of cosmetics and food packaging. Selecting the appropriate grade of PE Wax requires a thorough understanding of its properties and how they align with the intended application, ensuring optimal performance and compliance with industry standards.


Sustainability and Environmental Impact of PE Wax Production

In the context of growing environmental concerns and the push towards sustainability, the production and use of Polyethylene wax (PE Wax) come under scrutiny. This section evaluates the sustainability and environmental implications of PE Wax production, considering both the challenges and advancements aimed at minimizing its ecological footprint.

Resource Utilization and Energy Consumption

  • The production of PE Wax involves the polymerization of ethylene, a process that requires significant energy input. Ethylene is derived from fossil fuels, primarily natural gas and crude oil, linking PE Wax production to the consumption of non-renewable resources. Efforts to reduce energy consumption through process optimization and the use of renewable energy sources in manufacturing are crucial steps towards sustainability.

Emissions and Environmental Pollution

  • The chemical industry, including PE Wax manufacturing, contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, which are a major concern for climate change. Implementing cleaner production technologies and improving efficiency are strategies manufacturers are adopting to lower their carbon footprint.
  • Additionally, the management of by-products and waste from PE Wax production processes is essential to prevent environmental pollution. Modern facilities are increasingly adopting waste minimization and recycling practices to address this issue.

Advancements in Bio-Based PE Wax

  • A significant development in mitigating the environmental impact of PE Wax production is the introduction of bio-based PE Wax. This innovative approach utilizes ethylene derived from renewable sources, such as bioethanol produced from agricultural waste or non-food crops. Bio-based PE Wax offers a more sustainable alternative, reducing dependence on fossil fuels and lowering greenhouse gas emissions associated with production.

Recyclability and Lifecycle Management

  • PE Wax is compatible with recycling processes, particularly when used in plastics and packaging applications. Enhancing the recyclability of products containing PE Wax is key to promoting circular economy principles, where materials are kept in use for as long as possible, and waste is minimized.
  • Lifecycle assessment (LCA) studies focusing on PE Wax and its applications help identify areas for improvement in terms of environmental performance, guiding industries towards more sustainable practices.

Regulatory and Industry Initiatives

  • Regulatory frameworks and industry standards play a pivotal role in driving the sustainability of PE Wax production. Compliance with environmental regulations, participation in voluntary sustainability programs, and certification under eco-labels are measures that manufacturers can undertake to demonstrate their commitment to environmental stewardship.
  • Collaboration across the value chain, from raw material suppliers to end-users, is essential for developing and implementing sustainable solutions. This includes efforts to improve product design for recyclability, the use of bio-based raw materials, and investment in research and development for cleaner production technologies.

In conclusion, while PE Wax production poses environmental challenges, ongoing advancements and industry initiatives are paving the way for more sustainable practices. By focusing on energy efficiency, emissions reduction, bio-based alternatives, and recyclability, the PE Wax industry can contribute to a more sustainable future, aligning with global environmental goals and consumer expectations for eco-friendly products.


Future Trends in PE Wax Application and Market Growth Predictions

The Polyethylene Wax (PE Wax) market is poised for significant growth and transformation in the coming years, driven by evolving industry demands, technological advancements, and a shifting regulatory landscape. This section explores the anticipated trends in PE Wax applications and provides insights into market growth predictions, highlighting how these dynamics will shape the future of PE Wax in various sectors.

Expansion in High-Growth Industries

  • Packaging and Coatings: The packaging industry, particularly food and pharmaceutical packaging, is expected to increase the demand for PE Wax due to its non-toxicity and compliance with health regulations. In coatings, advancements in formulations for automotive, furniture, and protective coatings will drive the use of PE Wax for improved performance.
  • Plastics and Composites: As the plastics industry seeks more efficient and sustainable processing methods, the role of PE Wax as a lubricant and processing aid will become even more critical. Its application in composites for lightweight and high-strength materials in automotive and aerospace industries is also expected to rise.

Technological Innovations and Product Development

  • Bio-based PE Wax: The development of bio-based PE Wax, derived from renewable resources, is set to gain momentum as industries move towards greener alternatives. This shift will address environmental concerns and meet consumer demand for sustainable products.
  • Advanced Formulations: Innovative PE Wax formulations offering enhanced properties, such as improved thermal stability, higher resistance to chemicals, and tailored melt points, will cater to specialized applications, pushing the boundaries of its traditional uses.

Regulatory and Environmental Impact

  • Regulatory Compliance: Stricter environmental regulations worldwide will influence the production processes and applications of PE Wax. Manufacturers will need to adapt to these changes by investing in cleaner production technologies and ensuring their products meet the evolving standards.
  • Sustainability Initiatives: The emphasis on sustainability will lead to increased recycling and lifecycle assessments of products containing PE Wax. Efforts to reduce the carbon footprint and improve the recyclability of PE Wax-based products will become a priority for industries.

Market Growth Predictions

  • Emerging Markets: The growth of emerging markets, particularly in Asia-Pacific and Latin America, presents lucrative opportunities for the PE Wax industry. Rapid industrialization, coupled with an increase in manufacturing activities in these regions, will fuel the demand for PE Wax.
  • Innovation-led Growth: The market is expected to witness innovation-led growth, with R&D investments focusing on developing new applications and improving product attributes. This will not only expand the market size but also open up new avenues for the use of PE Wax.

Challenges and Opportunities

  • The main challenges facing the PE Wax market include volatility in raw material prices and the need for continuous innovation to meet changing industry requirements. However, these challenges also present opportunities for market players to differentiate themselves through sustainable practices, product innovation, and by tapping into new applications and markets.

In conclusion, the future of the PE Wax market is bright, with promising growth prospects across various industries. By leveraging technological advancements, adhering to regulatory requirements, and focusing on sustainability, the PE Wax industry can expect to see substantial expansion and diversification of its applications in the years ahead.

Understanding the function of PE wax reveals its indispensable role across various industries, enhancing product performance, process efficiency, and sustainability. This comprehensive overview has delved into its chemical composition, comparative advantages, innovative applications, technical specifications, and the environmental considerations of its production. The function of PE wax as a versatile additive underscores its significance in improving durability, resistance, and finish in products ranging from plastics and coatings to cosmetics and packaging. As the market evolves, the future trends highlight a growing emphasis on bio-based alternatives and sustainable practices, indicating that PE wax will continue to be a key player in material science, driving innovations and environmental responsibility.


Top FAQs: Expert Answers to Your Common Queries

What is the use of PE wax in PVC pipe?
PE wax, or polyethylene wax, is extensively utilized in PVC pipe manufacturing as a lubricant. It facilitates the processing of PVC by improving the flow of the polymer melt, reducing friction, and preventing sticking during extrusion. This ensures smoother surfaces and enhances the dimensional stability of the pipes, making them more durable and efficient in water and gas transportation.

What is the difference between oxidized PE wax and PE wax?
Oxidized PE wax is a modified form of polyethylene wax that has undergone an oxidation process, introducing polar functional groups to its structure. This modification enhances its compatibility with polar substances, improving its emulsification properties and making it more useful as a dispersant or performance enhancer in water-based formulations. In contrast, non-oxidized PE wax is mainly used for its lubricating and water-repellent properties in non-polar applications.

What is the difference between paraffin and polyethylene wax?
Paraffin wax and polyethylene wax differ primarily in their chemical structure and properties. Paraffin wax, derived from petroleum, is a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules, known for its excellent candle-making and coating properties due to its low melting point and good oil content. Polyethylene wax, on the other hand, is a synthetic wax with a higher melting point, offering superior hardness, heat resistance, and lubricating properties, making it more suitable for industrial applications like plastics processing and coatings.

How is PE wax made?
PE wax is produced through the polymerization of ethylene, a process that can yield waxes of varying molecular weights and properties. There are two primary methods: high-pressure polymerization, which produces low molecular weight PE wax, and the cracking of ethylene monomer, which results in higher molecular weight wax. The specific production process and conditions determine the wax’s characteristics, including its hardness, melting point, and viscosity.

What is PE wax material?
PE wax material refers to polyethylene wax, a synthetic wax known for its high melting point, excellent chemical resistance, and lubricating properties. It’s widely used in industries such as plastics, coatings, inks, and cosmetics to improve processing efficiency, enhance surface properties, and provide protective barriers.

What is the meaning of polyethylene wax?
Polyethylene wax, often abbreviated as PE wax, is a type of synthetic wax derived from the polymerization of ethylene. It is characterized by its solid state at room temperature, high melting point, and resistance to moisture, chemicals, and abrasion. PE wax is utilized in a variety of applications for its lubricating, protective, and performance-enhancing properties.

Why is polyethylene used for?
Polyethylene is used for its versatility, durability, and resistance to chemicals and moisture. It is widely employed in the production of films, containers, pipes, and household items due to its strength, flexibility, and impermeability. Polyethylene’s ease of processing and recyclability also make it a preferred material in packaging and manufacturing industries.

Is PE wax internal or external lubricant?
PE wax can function as both an internal and external lubricant in plastics processing. As an internal lubricant, it promotes smoother flow of the polymer melt through the equipment, while as an external lubricant, it reduces friction between the processed material and machinery parts, aiding in demolding and enhancing surface finishes.

What is another name for polyethylene wax?
Polyethylene wax is also commonly referred to as PE wax. In various industries, it might be identified by trade names or abbreviations based on its specific formulation or application, but “polyethylene wax” remains its most universally recognized and used name.

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Polyethylene Wax (pe wax)

Prepared by the PetroNaft Co. research team.


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